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During the summer months, children change their usual routines and activities, they bathe in swimming pools, spend more time outdoors, go to camps, play sports other than the usual ones ... respiratory infections are less frequent due to the higher temperature, but other types of diseases or problems increase.
1. Gastroenteritis: Intestinal infections that cause vomiting and / or diarrhea, with or without fever, are usually due to viral infections or ingestion of contaminated or undrinkable water or food in poor condition. It is easy for microorganisms to multiply with high temperatures and can cause these disorders. The most important thing is adequate hydration with an oral rehydration serum purchased in pharmacies.
2. Sunstroke: Heatstroke (from prolonged exposure to the sun) can cause dizziness, headache, or abdominal pain. It should be prevented by avoiding staying in the sun for a long time, drinking fluids, bathing in cool water and dressing in fresh and light clothing, avoiding dark tones.
3. Sunburn: Sunburn should be avoided by using a high protection factor (greater than 30) and avoiding sun exposure at the hours of maximum risk (from 11:00 in the morning to 17:00 in the afternoon). It is important to apply the sun protection factor every 2 hours and in adequate amounts for a total coverage of the body surface exposed to the sun. If the burn is significant, it sometimes requires applying a corticosteroid cream.
4. Conjunctivitis: Conjunctivitis are also frequent, since in many cases they are caused by chlorine or by infections that can be transmitted in water. Excess sun should be avoided with protective sunglasses, better with polarized lenses, and excess chlorine with diving goggles. Also the sand on the beach can cause corneal erosions, so rubbing the eyes should be avoided when the sensation that sand has entered. It is better to wash with saline solution and if symptoms persist, go to the pediatrician.
5. Otitis: External otitis are usually frequent after swimming in swimming pools. It is very painful, and the discomfort increases when the pinna is pulled. There may be otorrhea (purulent discharge through the ear canal). Antibiotics and corticosteroids are usually applied in the form of drops. Bathing should be avoided in the days after.
6. Dehydration: We must avoid dehydration in children, since it is more common to lose fluids with any physical activity. The child should drink water or juice, especially when he is exposed to the sun or doing physical activity. The dehydrated child has a pouting face, with a pasty tongue and dry lips, and urinates very little. It is normal for him to have little desire to eat, but we must give him fluids and put him in a cool place.
7. Stings: In summer the mosquitoes do their thing and attack especially at night. The sting manifests as a very itchy pimple. You have to try not to scratch the bite so that no injuries are produced and it does not become infected. To avoid them we can put mosquito nets, mosquito repellants in lotion or electric (depending on the age of the child), a basil plant. If the itching is intense or begins to have a skin infection, it should be treated with an antibiotic ointment and / or corticosteroids.
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